iS8 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION Records of Aberdeen. In 1418 we find the provost and com- munity of the burgh presenting a candidate for the mastership of the grammar school to be examined by the chancellor of the church. But in 1509, "the provost, bailies, council and com- munity n appointed a headmaster in overt defiance of the chan- cellor, and succeeded in maintaining the appointment in spite of an appeal to Rome. In 1538, when there was again a vacancy in the headmaster ship, the town council submitted their nominee to the chancellor, and though the chancellor had a man of his own for the post, they got their own candidate appointed. The position of towns like Peebles and Aberdeen was undoubtedly exceptional, but not without its significance as marking the beginnings of a wider movement for the transfer of education from the Church to the secular authorities. BIBLIOGRAPHY. ABELARD : G. Cornpayre, Abelard and the Origin and Early History of Universities, London, 1893 ; J. McCabe, Peter Abelard, London. 1901. See also General Bibliography, III.